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(veterinary medicine) A contagious disease of cows which is characterized by vesicopustular lesions of the skin that are prone to appear on the teats and udder, and which is transmissible to humans by handling infected cows and by vaccination; confers immunity against smallpox. Also known as cowpox.
The vaccinia virus; a laboratory generated virus, antigenically related to the cowpox virus, that causes a lesion on the teat skin of affected cows. It is indistinguishable from cowpox lesions and used to be used to vaccinate humans against smallpox.
membrane, while the CEV and EEV are both surrounded by two membrane layers and the IEV has three envelopes. The IMV is the most abundant infectious form and is thought to be responsible for spread between hosts. On the other hand, the CEV is believed to play a role in cell-to-cell spread and the EEV is thought to be important for long range dissemination within the host organism.
(eIF-2alpha). K3L protein inhibits the action of PKR, an activator of interferons. E3L is another protein encoded by Vaccinia. E3L also inhibits PKR activation; and is also able to bind to double stranded RNA.
infection. For this reason, Vaccinia virus was, and is still being used as a live-virus vaccine against smallpox. Unlike vaccines that use weakened forms of the virus being vaccinated against, the Vaccinia virus vaccine cannot cause a smallpox infection because it does not contain the smallpox virus. However, certain complications and/or vaccine adverse effects occasionally arise. The chance of this happening is significantly increased in people who are
, there is a possibility the vaccine may have to be widely administered again in the future. Therefore, scientists are currently developing novel vaccine strategies against smallpox which are safer and much faster to deploy during a bioterrorism event.
term used for Cowpox was variola vaccina, essentially a direct translation of "cow-related pox". That term lent its name to the whole idea of vaccination. When it was realized that the virus used in smallpox vaccination was not, or was no longer, the same as the Cowpox virus, the name 'vaccinia' stayed with the vaccine-related virus. (See OED.) Vaccine potency and efficacy prior to the invention of refrigerated methods of transportation was unreliable. The vaccine would be rendered impotent by heat and sunlight, and the method of drying samples on quills and shipping them to countries in need often resulted in an inactive vaccine. Another method employed was the "arm to arm" method. This involved vaccinating an individual then transferring it to another as soon as the infectious pustule forms, then to another, etc. This method was used as a form of living transportation of the vaccine, and usually employed orphans as carriers. However, this method was problematic due to the possibility of spreading other blood diseases, such as hepatitis and syphilis. 41 Italian children contracted syphilis after being vaccinated by the arm to arm method in 1861.
(CDC) reported that a woman in Washington had contracted vaccinia virus infection after digital vaginal contact with her boyfriend, a military member who had recently been vaccinated for smallpox. The woman had a history of childhood eczema, but she had not been symptomatic as an adult. The CDC indicated that it was aware of four similar cases in the preceding 12 months of vaccinia infection after sexual contact with a recent military vaccinee.
Johnson, L.; Gupta, A. K.; Ghafoor, A.; Akin, D.; Bashir, R. (2006). "Characterization of vaccinia virus particles using microscale silicon cantilever resonators and atomic force microscopy". Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 115 (1): 189–197.
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